looking for help with filling out all the info on this study guide. thanks! BIOL 260 MICROBIOLOGY STUDY GUIDE: EXAM 3 REPLICATION, PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

looking for help with filling out all the info on this study guide. thanks!

BIOL 260 MICROBIOLOGY STUDY GUIDE: EXAM 3

REPLICATION, PROTEIN SYNTHESIS & MUTATION

1. Compare/contrast the structure and functions of DNA and RNA.

2. Define genetics, gene, genome, chromosome, genotype, and phenotype.

3. Describe the process of DNA replication, including the major enzymes involved.

4. Explain the steps of RNA transcription in bacteria.

5. Explain the steps of protein synthesis (translation).

6. Define base substitution (point mutation): missense, nonsense and silent mutations

7. Define frameshift mutation.

8. Define operon, and explain the various regions: promoter, attenuator (operator), structural genes.

9. Compare constitutive, inducible and repressible operons.

10. Describe the process of gene repression in the trp operon.

11. Describe the process of gene induction in the lac operon.

GENE TRANSFER AND GENETIC ENGINEERING

1. Differentiate between horizontal and vertical gene transfer.

2. Compare the mechanisms of transformation, conjugation and transduction.

· Explain the process of transformation, and what it means for a cell to be competent.

· Define bacteriophage.

· Define F factor, and explain the results of an F+ bacterium contacting an F-.

· Is conjugation in bacteria a sexual process? Why or why not?

3. Define recombinant DNA and give at least 4 examples of genetic engineering. 

4. Define restriction enzymes, and outline how they are used to make recombinant DNA.

5. Describe how recombinant molecules can be introduced into eukaryotes (transfection).

6. Explain the use of gel electrophoresis to separate DNA fragments.

7. Explain the method and uses of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing.

8. Define CRISPR, and explain how it is used in genetic engineering.

VIRUSES AND PRIONS – CHARACTERISTICS AND REPLICATION

1. List the characteristics of viruses.

2. Describe the various ways used to classify viruses.

· Describe the structures and shapes used to identify viruses

· List the various types of nucleic acids that viruses may have.

3. Compare the lytic and lysogenic cycles of bacteriophages.

4. Research phage therapy – bonus assignment.

5. Compare the stages of replication of animal viruses with that of bacteriophages.

6. Describe the difference in the release of an enveloped and a non-enveloped animal virus.

7. Differentiate between latent and chronic viral infections, and give examples of each.

8. Define oncogenic viruses and give examples. What do oncogenic viruses have in common?

9. Explain the function of reverse transcriptase.

10. Define prion and give examples of diseases caused by prions.

11. Explain how prions replicate.

12. Explain how mRNA vaccines work.

VIRAL DISEASES

1. List two ways HIV avoids the host’s antibodies and tell which cells of the immune system are the main target of HIV.

2. Describe difference between antigenic shift and antigenic drift with influenza viruses.

3. For the following viral diseases know – the causative agent, means of transmission, and the signs/symptoms.

A. Common cold

B. Influenza

C. Measles (rubeola)

D. Mumps

E. Rubella (German measles)

F. Chickenpox/Shingles

G. Polio

H. Hepatitis A & B

I. Herpes Simplex I (cold sores/fever blisters)

J. Herpes Simplex II (genital)

K. Small Pox

L. Rabies

M. Rotavirus

N. Mononucleosis/Burkitt’s Lymphoma

O. Warts

P. AIDS

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